In a nutshell, a bureaucracy is a arrangement organized by graded categorization. A accustomed archetype is the authoritative anatomy of a company, area workers address to admiral and admiral address to average managers. Average managers, in turn, address to chief managers, and chief managers address to vice-presidents, who address to the admiral of the company. Graphically, this bureaucracy looks as apparent in Figure 3.1.
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You’ve absolutely apparent this blazon of analogy before, and you apperceive that a college position indicates added control. Anniversary position is controlled by the abutting accomplished position or row. The admiral is top dog of the organization, but anniversary consecutive ambassador is additionally in ascendancy of his or her own baby fiefdom.
To accept how a book arrangement has a agnate organization, brainstorm anniversary of the managers in the analogy as a book binder and anniversary of the advisers as a allotment of paper, filed in a accurate folder. Open any book cabinet, and you apparently see things organized this way: Filed affidavit are placed in labeled folders, and generally these folders are filed in groups beneath specific topics. The drawer ability again accept a specific characterization to analyze it from added drawers in the cabinet, and so on.
That’s absolutely what a hierarchical book arrangement is all about. You appetite to accept your files amid in the best adapted abode in the book system, whether at the absolute top, in a folder, or in a nested alternation of folders. With accurate usage, a hierarchical book arrangement can accommodate bags of files and still acquiesce users to acquisition any alone book quickly.
On my computer, the capacity of this book are organized in a hierarchical fashion, as apparent in Figure 3.2.
Figure 3.2 Book alignment for the capacity of Sams Teach Yourself Unix in 24 Hours, Fourth Edition.
A key abstraction enabling the Unix hierarchical book arrangement to be so able is that annihilation that is not a binder is a file. Programs are files in Unix, accessory drivers are files, abstracts and spreadsheets are files, your keyboard is represented as a file, your affectation is a file, and alike your tty band and abrasion are files.
What this agency is that as Unix has developed, it has abhorred acceptable an ungainly mess. Unix does not accept hundreds of cryptic files ashore at the top (this is still a botheration in DOS) or tucked abroad in ambagious folders aural the Arrangement Binder (as with the Macintosh).
The top akin of the Unix book anatomy (/) is accepted as the basis agenda or carve directory, and it consistently has a assertive set of subdirectories, including bin, dev, etc, lib, mnt, tmp, and usr. There can be a lot more, however.
You can access a advertisement of the files and directories in your own top-level agenda by application the ls -F / command. (You’ll apprentice all about the ls command in the abutting hour. For now, aloof be abiding that you access absolutely what’s apparent in the example.)
On a altered computer system, here’s what I see aback I access that command:
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In this example, any filename that ends with a carve (/) is a binder (Unix calls these directories). Any filename that ends with an asterisk (*) is a program. Annihilation catastrophe with the at assurance (@) is a allegorical articulation (a arrow to accession book or agenda abroad in the book system), and aggregate abroad is a normal, apparent file.
As you can see from this example, and as you’ll anon acquisition aback you try the command yourself, there is abundant aberration in how altered Unix systems adapt the top-level directory. There are some directories and files in common, and already you alpha analytical the capacity of specific directories, you’ll acquisition that hundreds of programs and files consistently appearance up in the aforementioned abode from Unix to Unix.
It’s as if you were alive as a book agent at a new law firm. Although this close ability accept a specific access to filing information, the access can be agnate to the filing arrangement of added firms area you accept formed in the past. If you apperceive the basal organization, you can bound aces up the specifics of a accurate organization.
The achievement of the antecedent ls command shows the files and directories in the top akin of your system. Next, you apprentice what the frequently begin directories are.
In Unix parlance, programs are advised executables because users can assassinate them. (In this case, assassinate is a analogue for run, not an adumbration that you get to aberrate about murdering innocent applications!) Aback the affairs has been compiled, it is translated from antecedent cipher into what’s alleged a bifold format. Add the two together, and you accept a accepted Unix description for an application—an executable binary.
It’s no abruptness that the aboriginal Unix developers absitively to accept a agenda labeled binaries to abundance all the executable programs on the system. Remember the archaic teletypewriter discussed earlier? Accepting a apathetic arrangement to allocution with the computer had abounding ramifications you ability not expect. The distinct best accessible one was that aggregate became absolutely concise. There were no diffuse words like binaries or listfiles, but rather blunt abbreviations: bin and ls are, respectively, the Unix equivalents.
The bin agenda (pronounce it to beat with “tin”) is area all the executable binaries were kept in aboriginal Unix. Over time, as added and added executables were added to Unix, accepting all the executables in one abode accepted unmanageable, and the bin agenda breach into assorted genitalia (/bin, /sbin, /usr/bin).
Among the best important portions of any computer are its accessory drivers. Afterwards them, you wouldn’t accept any advice on your awning (the advice arrives address of the affectation accessory driver). You wouldn’t be able to access advice (the advice is apprehend and accustomed to the arrangement by the keyboard accessory driver), and you wouldn’t be able to use your billowing deejay drive (managed by the billowing accessory driver).
Remember, aggregate in Unix is a file. Every basic of the system, from the keyboard disciplinarian to the adamantine disk, is a file.
Earlier, you abstruse how about annihilation in Unix is advised a book in the book system, and the dev agenda is an example. All accessory drivers—often calculation into the hundreds—are stored as abstracted files in the accepted Unix dev (devices) directory. Accent this agenda name “dev,” not “dee-ee-vee.”
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Unix administering can be absolutely complex, involving administration of user accounts, the book system, security, accessory drivers, accouterments configurations, and more. To help, Unix designates the etc agenda as the accumulator abode for all authoritative files and information.
Pronounce the agenda name “ee-tea-sea,” “et-sea,” or “etcetera.” All three pronunciations are common.
Like your own community, Unix has a axial accumulator abode for action and procedural libraries. These specific executables are included with specific programs, acceptance programs to action appearance and capabilities contrarily unavailable. The abstraction is that if programs appetite to accommodate assertive features, they can advertence alone the aggregate archetype in the Unix library rather than accepting a new, altered copy.
Pronounce the agenda name “libe” or “lib” (to beat with the chat bib).
With assorted users active abounding altered programs simultaneously, it’s been a claiming over the years to advance a book arrangement that can abide synchronized with the action of the computer. Assorted genitalia of the Unix kernel—the accuracy of the system—help with this problem. Aback files are recovered afterwards any array of botheration or failure, they are placed here, in the absent begin directory, if the atom cannot ascertain the able area in the book system. This agenda should be abandoned about all the time.
This agenda is frequently arresting “lost and found” rather than “lost additional found.”
The mnt (pronounced “em-en-tea”) and sys (pronounced “sis”) directories are cautiously abandoned by Unix users. The mnt agenda is advised to be a accepted abode to arise alien media—hard disks, disposable armament drives, and so on—in Unix. On abounding systems, admitting not all, sys contains files advertence the arrangement configuration.
A agenda that you can’t ignore, the tmp directory—say “temp”—is acclimated by abounding of the programs in Unix as a acting file-storage space. If you’re alteration a file, for example, the editor makes a archetype of the file, saves it in tmp, and you assignment anon with that, extenuative the new book aback to your aboriginal alone aback you’ve completed your work.
On best systems, tmp ends up blowzy with assorted files and executables larboard by programs that don’t abolish their own acting files. On one arrangement I use, it’s not aberrant to acquisition 10–30 megabytes of files crumbling space.
Even so, if you’re manipulating files or alive with copies of files, tmp is the best abode to accumulate the acting copies. Indeed, on some Unix workstations, tmp absolutely can be the fastest accessory on the computer, acceptance for affecting achievement improvements over alive with files anon in your home directory.
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The aftermost of the accepted directories at the top akin of the Unix book arrangement bureaucracy is the usr—pronounced “user”—directory. Originally, this agenda was advised to be the axial accumulator abode for all user-related commands. Today, however, abounding companies accept their own interpretation, and there’s no cogent what you’ll acquisition in this directory.
In accession to all the directories ahead listed, assorted added directories and files frequently action in Unix systems. Some files ability accept slight variations in name on your computer, so aback you analyze your advertisement to the afterward files and directories, be active for accessible addition spellings.
A book you charge accept in adjustment to accompany up Unix at all is one usually alleged unix or vmunix, or alleged afterwards the specific adaptation of Unix on the computer. The book contains the absolute Unix operating system. The book charge accept a specific name and charge be begin at the top akin of the book system. Hand-in-hand with the operating arrangement is accession book alleged boot, which helps during antecedent startup of the hardware.
Notice on one of the antecedent listings that the files cossack and dynix appear. (DYNIX is the name of the accurate alternative of Unix acclimated on Sequent computers.) By comparison, the advertisement from the Sun Microsystems workstation shows cossack and vmunix as the two files.
Another agenda you ability acquisition in your own top-level advertisement is diag—pronounced “dye-ag”—which acts as a armory for analytic and aliment programs. If you accept any programs aural this directory, it’s best not to try them out afterwards able training!
The home directory, /home, additionally sometimes alleged users, is a axial abode for acclimation all files endemic by specific users. Advertisement this agenda is usually an accessible way to acquisition out what accounts are on the system, too, because by assemblage anniversary alone annual agenda is alleged afterwards the user’s annual name. On one arrangement I use, my annual is taylor, and my alone annual agenda is additionally alleged taylor. Home directories are consistently created by the arrangement administrator.
The net directory, if set up correctly, is a accessible adjustment for accessing added computers on your network.
The tftpboot agenda is a almost new affection of Unix. The belletrist angle for “trivial book alteration agreement boot.” Don’t let the name abash you, though; this agenda contains versions of the atom acceptable for X Window System–based terminals and diskless workstations to run Unix.
Some Unix systems accept directories alleged for specific types of peripherals that can be attached. On the Sun workstation, you can see examples with the directories cdrom and pcfs. The above is for a CD-ROM drive and the closing for DOS-format billowing disks.
Many added directories are in Unix, but this will accord you an abstraction of how things are organized.
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